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Neotropic Cormorant vs. Double-crested Cormorant

Every spring, large flocks of dark-colored, long-necked birds make their way across North America: Double crested Cormorants. Due to their distinctive shape, these birds are easy to identify in the marshes and lakes that they inhabit. However, there is another cormorant species that occasionally makes its way north from central and south America that looks incredibly similar to its double-crested relative: The Neotropic Cormorant.

In most places in the United states, with the exception of some southern states, the Neotropic Cormorant is extremely uncommon. For that reason, it pays to know what to look for in order to find a rare species or simply to differentiate them from Double-crested Cormorants in states where the two species regularly overlap.

Size

The first thing to look at is the size and shape. Neotropic Cormorants are shorter and sleeker than Double-crested Cormorants with an average 61cm height, and a wingspan of 102 cm compared to the 70 to 90 cm height and 114 to 123 cm wingspan of the Double-crested Cormorant. In addition to the basic size difference, the Neotropic Cormorant’s tail will appear longer (compared to its body) than the Double-crested Cormorant’s tail. These characteristics are most noticeable in flight when directly compared to the other cormorant species but can also be seen when the birds are perched.

Size Comparison
The Double-crested Cormorant on the left appears larger than the Neotropic Cormorant on the right

Lore Color

Size can be difficult to determine without a direct comparison to other nearby birds. Fortunately, there are some other field marks that can be used to distinguish these two species. First, note the lores (just above the bill, going from the eye to the bill) on the Double-crested Cormorant. Both juveniles and adults display yellow to orange colored lores. In Neotropic Cormorant, the lores are significantly darker. When comparing these two next to each other, there is actually a significant difference.

Double-crested Cormorant
Note the bright orange lore, 90 degree angle of the gular, and the  lack of white around the gular on this Double-crested Cormorant

Gular

Another important area to note on these birds is the gular (which is essentially the upper throat). Both species have orange or yellowish gulars, but the shape is different depending on  the species. If you look carefully, you can see that the Neotropic Cormorant has a gular that angles toward the bill in an acute angle. The gular on the Double-crested Cormorant angles far less, and in many instances makes a 90 degree angle.

Another field mark birders regularly use to distinguish these species is the white triangular marking that lines the gular on the Neotropic cormorant. It’s very obvious in adults but less visible in juveniles.

Neotropic Cormorant
Note the dark lore, acute angle of the gular, and white triangle around the gular on this Neotropic Cormorant

Review

It can be really difficult to make a positive ID based on just one characteristic between these two species. For that reason, it’s best to look at all the field markings. As a whole, an adult Neotropic Cormorant will have a smaller, sleeker stature, a longer tail, dark lores, a gular that acutely angles in toward the bill, and a white triangular marking around the gular. An adult Double-crested Cormorant will be larger and blockier, have a shorter, stubbier tale, brightly colored lores, a gular that is less angled near the mouth, and no white triangle mark around the gular.

A Double-crested Cormorant can be identified by regarding these characteristics:

Larger size
Bulkier Appearance
Brightly colored lores
More obtuse angle where the gular meets the throat
Lack of white around the gular

A Neotropic Cormorant can be identified by the characteristics below

Smaller size
Sleeker appearance
Dark lores
Acute angle where the gular meets the throat
White triangle marking around the gular in adults

With these traits in mind, it becomes much easier to differentiate between these two species. We hope you found this post helpful. Be sure to like and subscribe for more ID tips, and leave a comment below if there are any specific species you would like to see an ID tips about.

Adult Neotropic Cormorant photo by Gary Leavens

 

Epic day of Birding in early April

Early April is the time of year when some of the most interesting migrants start their journey north to their breeding grounds. Many of these birds make stops in Wisconsin along with some that don’t belong here at all. Such is the case of the Golden-crowned Sparrow that showed up at a residence in Calumet County about a week ago.

Initially, the hour and a half drive, combined with nice weather made me disinterested in chasing it since I wanted to enjoy the temperatures outside. However, after the state parks closed ,and with a lot of time on my hands due to COVID lockdown, I decided to make the trip along with Derek.

Golden-crowned Sparrow
Golden-crowned Sparrow

When we arrived at the home the sparrow had been seen at, other birders were just leaving. The bird had been visiting on and off, seemingly showing up a few times per hour. The homeowners were nice enough to let us come up their driveway and wait for the bird to appear. While we waited, we saw several species flying through the yard and foraging including Dark-eyed Juncos, Song Sparrows, Hairy, Woodpeckers, Tree Swallows, Eastern Phoebes, Chipping Sparrows, and Red-winged Blackbirds. After ten minutes or so we noticed a larger sparrow in the thickets near the back of the yard. Even with just quick glimpses we could tell that it was in fact the Golden-crowned Sparrow. Just as quickly as it appeared it was out of sight. Minutes later, it reappeared near the bird feeder just 15 feet from where we were waiting. It only stayed for about 30 seconds before vanishing. Since the Golden-crowned Sparrow is such a rare visitor to our state, we stayed longer, hoping to get one more look. Eventfully, it popped up again and this time stayed for a number of minutes, giving us incredible views.

After getting our lifer Golden-crowned Sparrow, we decided to head to Horicon Marsh in search of some other rare birds. We started on Ledge Road where a Surf Scoter had been seen over the past few days. We quickly found the beautiful breeding plumage bird very close to the road. Surf Scoters can be found every year in Wisconsin, but usually in much larger bodies of water and most typically in the great lakes.

Surf Scoter
Surf Scoter

After viewing the Scoter we followed a hot tip on some Whooping Cranes near the auto tour board walk. I had only ever seen one Whooping Crane in my life and Derek had never seen one, so we were excited about the prospect of finding them. When we got to the boardwalk, a Yellow-rumped Warbler was greeted us. Further out, Blue-winged Teals and Gadwalls floated around in the marsh water. Then, I noticed what looked like a big, white blob to the south. When I saw the white blob put it’s long, elegant head and neck up, I knew immediately what it was. I alerted Derek and we enjoyed some excellent looks at these endangered birds.

Whooping Cranes
Whooping Cranes

As we were looking at the cranes, we got another tip that there was a Eurasian Wigeon seen near the visitor center. We rushed there next as the sky began to darken. When we arrived, there were tons of people there seemingly walking around aimlessly, just wanting to have something to do. While keeping our distance from them, we scoured the water in hopes of finding our third rare species of the day. We located a Pied-billed Grebe, Double-crested Cormorant, Green-winged Teal, pair of Ospreys, Great Blue Heron, and first of year Purple Martin. Sadly, the Eurasian Wigeon was nowhere to be seen. We did however find a hybrid Snow Goose/Canada Goose on our way out which was interesting.

Although we were a little bummed about missing the Eurasian Wigeon, we couldn’t be too upset considering we had an excellent birding day with some great weather while we were out.

Hairy Woodpecker vs. Downy Woodpecker

Hopping up and down trees across North America are two very similar woodpecker species: the Hairy Woodpecker and the Downy Woodpecker. Both are black and white with almost identical patterns, and both can be found in the same habitat. At first glance it may seem impossible to tell these two birds apart, but upon closer inspection there are some tell tale differences that birders can use to make a positive identification.

Size

The first thing that helps to differentiate these species is size. The Hairy Woodpecker is larger than the downy with an average length of 18-26cm and a wingspan of 33-41cm. The Downy Woodpecker measures in at 14-18cm long on average and a wingspan of 25-30cm. This means that the Hairy Woodpecker is approximately one third bigger than a Downy Woodpecker and is about the size of a Red-bellied Woodpecker in size. While size isn’t always the most reliable tool when identifying a species, the difference between these two birds is fairly substantial.

Downy Woodpecker
Downy Woodpecker

Bill Length

The second and possibly best way to tell the Hairy Woodpecker from the Downy Woodpecker is by looking at the bill. The Hairy Woodpecker has a longer bill that is about equal in size to the length of the head. The Downy Woodpecker has a shorter more triangular bill about one third to one half the size of the length of the bird’s head. Bill size comparison is much easier than overall size comparison when there are no direct comparisons available in the field.

 

Hairy Woodpecker
Note the long bill and clean outer tail feathers of this Hairy Woodpecker

Field Markings

There are two field markings that can be used to separate the Hairy Woodpecker from the Downy Woodpecker. The first is a comma mark that goes from the shoulder to the breast. This marking is seen most prominently on the Hairy Woodpecker and is often not visible at all on the Downy. The second marking to look for is the black barring on the white other tail feathers of the Downy Woodpecker that the Hairy Woodpecker lacks. While at a distance these two things can be hard to spot, closer up or with optics, both field markings can be used to differentiate these two woodpeckers.

Downy Woodpecker
Note the small bill, lack of extended “comma” mark and barring on the outer tail feathers of this Downy Woodpecker

Hairy Woodpecker

Larger size
Longer bill
Defined comma marking
Pure white outer tail feathers

Downy Woodpecker

Smaller size
Short triangular bill
Less defined or non existent comma marking
Black barring on outer tail feathers

Although these birds have strikingly similar color patterns and behaviors, with the right knowledge they can be very easy to tell apart. We hope this post was helpful, follow our blog and give us a like of Facebook and Youtube

Harris’s Sparrow in Ozaukee County

On January 17th I heard that a Harris’s Sparrow had been seen by the bird feeders at the Mequon Nature Preserve in Ozaukee County, WI. A day later I decided to make the 50 minute trip north to see if I could find this rare bird.

The Harris’s Sparrow breeds in Northern Canada and can reach as far south as Texas in winter. Their normal range is between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River but each year, a few individuals stray into other parts of the country such as Wisconsin, where a handful of reports come in each year.

With a blizzard the night before, I felt confident that the bird had stayed put and would be looking to the feeders at the preserve for food. When I arrived and got out of the car some light snow was falling and the wind made being outside unpleasant to say the least. A snow removal worker was plowing snow off the parking lot and shoveling the sidewalks and pathways. I walked around the east side of the building and a small flock of American Tree Sparrows and Dark-eyed Juncos flushed from some nearby bushes. I scanned through them, hoping to see the Harris’s among them. No luck this time. I went around to the north side where some bird feeders were. Several birds were actively feeding, including more Juncos and Tree Sparrows and some noisy House Sparrows.

I continued around the building, coming to the west side where there was one feeder and a couple of Black-capped Chickadees, but nothing else. I knew at this point it would be a waiting game.

Harris' Sparrow
Harris’s Sparrow on beams

I made a few more laps around the building when suddenly there was a larger flock of birds at the feeder to the west. Among the smaller birds I had already seen was one that was slightly larger. It had a black cap and white chest with a bright orange beak: It was the Harris’s Sparrow! Just as soon as it had appeared it took off across the road into the shrubs where it seemingly vanished. Feeling unsatisfied with my second-long encounter, I waited longer, thinking it would be back again at some point. As I waited, several other birds came and joined in the search.

It was nearly an hour of people with cameras and binoculars milling around and checking feeders until the sparrow returned. When it did, it stayed in the bushes near the feeder, occasionally moving around. From time to time it would fly up on some wood beams attached to the building. It gave pretty good lucks but was almost always obscured by branches and twigs.

Other birds seen were a flyby Cooper’s Hawk and a surprise flyover Glaucous Gull.

Cackling Goose vs. Canada Goose

Almost everyone is familiar with the loud and abundant Canada Goose. Even non birders can pick out the familiar brown bodied, black and white faced bird best known for it’s v-shaped migratory pattern and its reputation for being easily irritated by passers by. However, there is another bird closely resembling the Canada Goose that makes its way across North America during migration: The Cackling Goose.

The Cackling Goose looks extremely similar to the Canada Goose. So similar in fact, that it was originally listed as a Canada Goose subspecies. Eventually, it was determined that the Cackling Goose was different enough to warrant its own species distinction. There are now 7 subspecies of Canada Geese and 4 subspecies of Cackling Goose with each subspecies having subtle differences. While at first glance, the two species are tough to tell apart, there are a some diagnostic characteristics that make differentiating the Canada Goose and Cackling Goose much easier.

Size

Cackling Geese
Looking at the image, the petit stature of the 3 Cackling Geese in front of the many Canada Geese is obvious

One of the most noticeable differences between the Canada Goose and Cackling Goose is overall size. The Canada Goose is by far larger with an average length of 76-110 cm and wing span of 127-170 cm compared the Cackling Goose’s much daintier 63-65 cm length and 108-111 cm wingspan. When standing side by side the difference is obvious with the Cackling Goose being closer in size to a Mallard than to a Canada Goose. However, the issue is that a direct comparison is not always possible. In addition, larger subspecies of Cackling Goose can be close to the size of a smaller subspecies of Canada Goose. For this reason, size alone is not always reliable.

Bill

The next distinguishing feature to note is the bill. The Canada Goose’s bill is long and gently sloping to give it a more pointed appearance. The Cackling Goose’s bill is stubbier and slopes down more rapidly; giving it a more triangular appearance. The Cackling Goose’s shorter bill is one of the key features that can be diagnostic in the field even when there are no Canada Geese nearby to compare with.

Neck

Canada Geese
This image shows how deceptive size and neck length can be. Both of these birds are Canada Geese but the bird in front looks a bit smaller and is not elongating its neck. However, the bills on both birds are nearly identical.

Much like bill length, neck length is also a key feature that differs in the two species. The Canada Goose has a comparatively longer neck than the short neck of the Cackling Goose. Even when fully extended, the Cackling Goose will still appear to have a shorter neck. This feature can be slightly deceptive as Canada Geese can appear to have short necks when they are resting and length can be largely dependent of position of the bird..

Other Features

There are a few other less noticeable features that differentiate the species as well. One thing to look for is primary projection. The wing tips of the Canada Goose typically do not stretch as far beyond the rump as those of the cackling Goose. This gives the Cackling Goose a slightly more elegant appearance.

The size and shape of the head can also be used as a diagnostic tool. The Canada Goose’s head is larger and has a more gentle sloped angle from the back of the head to the front. The Cackling Goose has a smaller and more rounded head.

Review

Cackling Geese
Here is a good comparison to note all ID features of the Cackling Goose. The two birds in the middle of the image are smaller in size with stubby necks, stubby bills, rounded heads, and slightly longer primary feathers than the Canada Geese around them.

Canada Goose

Larger Size
Long pointed bill
Long neck
Shorter primary projection
Flatter sloping head

Cackling Goose

Smaller size
Short, stubby, triangular bill
Short neck
Longer primary projection
Small rounded head

Canada Goose vs. Cackling Goose can certainly be a challenging ID. Since most of the differentiating features are comparative, it can especially difficult to make an identification when there are no other birds around for perspective. With both species varying wildly in size due to many subspecies, no one characteristic should be used to disseminate the two. Instead, all characteristics together can help paint a clearer picture of which birds are Canada Geese and which are Cackling Geese.

Why the House Sparrow should be the USA’s National Bird

There are few symbols that represent the United States of America better than the Bald Eagle. The image of a soaring eagle is emblematic of freedom, courage, and bravery. While the Bald Eagle has long been accepted as the best choice to represent our country, it has not been without its detractors. Founding Father Ben Franklin had a famous distaste for eagles, once stating this in a letter:

“For my own part. I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character. He does not get his living honestly … besides he is a rank coward: The little king bird not bigger than a sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district. “

If not the Bald Eagle, then what other bird could possibly be suited for this proud nation? According to lore, Franklin preferred the Wild Turkey as the bird to best represent the United States as he viewed the species as intelligent and cunning. However, there could be one often overlooked species that would be an even better fit: The House Sparrow.

Before angrily closing your laptop, hear me out on this one. The much maligned House Sparrow may have more in common with Americans than first meets the eye.

Shared History

The ancestors of House Sparrows living in the United States today were not native to North America, but rather introduced in 1851 in Brooklyn New York. They were introduced again in San Francisco and Salt Lake City in the 1870s. They found this new habitat suitable and by 1900 had made their way across the entire mainland USA with populations stretching from coastline to coastline.

It’s easy to have ill feelings toward a species that inhabits a land that was not their own,  but then again most of our ancestors arrived from other countries as well. Much like the adventurous House Sparrow, many immigrants arrived in New York and California to start their new lives in the United States. The first immigrants that arrived in the United States in 1620 initially struggled in their quest to find a better life. Eventually, their descendants along with other immigrants expanded westward, and much like the House Sparrow began to thrive. As new Americans moved across the nation, so did the House Sparrow, often prospering in areas already inhabited by humans.

House Sparrow
House Sparrow

Shared Habitat

While most native species spend their time away from human activity, House Sparrows thrive in it. Like other non-native species such as European Starlings and Pigeons, House Sparrows can be found near almost any man-made structure including houses, bridges, brush piles and many more. House Sparrows not only live with humans but also dine with them, frequently eating discarded food scraps and utilizing backyard bird feeders. The fact that these birds have found a way to live right alongside people sets them apart from many other species that inhabit North America.

Well we’d like to believe that we are adventurous and prefer to be exploring the outdoors, in reality, most of us prefer our comfortable nests in the city. This is also true of the House Sparrow as they actually prefer to utilize man-made structures and birdhouses rather than natural tree cavities.

Shared Characteristics

House Sparrows have a habit of being quite nasty to other species. While nesting they will harass any other bird that gets close to their nest and even violently attack nesting birds in an attempt to evict them from nest holes that they want. Many nature enthusiasts harbor disdain for House Sparrows because of this brash aggression toward anything that flies. Bird lovers also despise them due to their tendency to displace native species. However, as human habitation continues to infringe on natural areas it becomes clear that we may have more in common with House Sparrows than we’d like to believe. In 2009 there were nearly 2,000 species of plants and animals listed as endangered in North America. Most of those have habitat loss noted as the primary reason.

Though it’s easy to dwell on the negative correlations between House Sparrows and Americans, there are many things to be proud of when it comes to this bird. They are very social, living in groups communicating with each other often. They display great courage in the face of much larger enemies and fiercely defend their families. They are resilient and adaptive and have found a way to proliferate an entire continent. While the House Sparrow may be a nuisance to other bird species, they do whatever it takes to ensure the survival of their own species. Surely that is found in human beings as well.

Final Thoughts

The House Sparrow is an impressively adaptive species that carved out a niche for itself in a land it didn’t originally belong in. They have successfully found a way to co-exist with human beings and have withstood the freezing winters and harsh summers of the North America to live in nearly every state. The House Sparrows defends itself and its family with courage and ferocity even in the face of a much larger foe.

While the House Sparrow gets a bad rap, If one looks below the surface, it’s easy to see ourselves in this species even if we don’t want to admit it. This little bird has beaten the odds; ascending beyond its small stature to become a fixture in many North American environments. With a story similar to our own, this formerly European species is now just as American as we are. For that reason, the House Sparrow would be the perfect National bird for the United States.

Rare Warblers To Watch For This Spring

Just about every birder in the Midwest loves the arrival of spring migrants. During these months, no bird is more highly anticipated than warblers. These colorful and fast moving birds captivate the birding community for at least a month each year as everyone tries to gorge themselves on viewing as many of them as they can for the fleeting time they are here. While most species of warblers are easy to find during migration, there are some that are extremely rare. Some of these species are reported annually while others are only seen once or twice in a ten year span. Either way, finding one of these warblers can make even the most routine day birding into an instantly memorable day.

Black-Throated Gray Warbler

Extremely Rare

Black-throated Gray Warbler
Black-throated Gray Warbler

The Black-throated Gray warbler is aptly named for its black throat and dusky gray back is an extreme rarity in the Midwest with few individuals straying east of Colorado. At first glance, this species could be mistaken for a Black and White Warbler or a Blackpoll Warbler. Upon closer inspection, the Black-throated Gray Warbler has a distinctive yellow marking on the face near the bill. This species has been seen twice in Wisconsin since 2010 with all sightings occurring in May in either Dane or Ozaukee County. Black-throated Gray Warblers have also been seen in Minneapolis and north of Chicago. The most likely way to find one is to get out during May migration and check each black and white colored warbler very carefully.

Townsend’s Warbler

Extremely Rare

Townsend's Warbler
Townsend’s Warbler

The Townsend’s Warbler is another bird of Western North America that rarely strays out of its normal range. Their back is greenish yellow, their wings are black with two white wing bars, and their chest is yellow with black streaks. They have a dark cap, black throat, and distinctive yellow crescent shaped marking on the side of the face. Upon first glance they look similar to the much more common Black-throated Green Warbler, but with a closer look the differences are noticeable. Since 2010 there have been three instances of Townsend’s Warblers in Wisconsin. One bird seen at Pheasant Branch in Madison in May of 2014, one bird visiting a feeder in Kewaunee in December of 2016, and one interesting report of a bird landing on a boat 10 miles off-shore near Manitowoc in September of 2010. There seems to be very little pattern to the appearance of Townsend’s Warblers in our state but they do visit bird feeders so it’s possible that one could show up at a birders residence.

Prairie Warbler

Rare but Annual

Prairie Warbler
Prairie Warbler

The normal range of Prairie Warblers spans from the eastern Central America in winter all the way up to the Atlantic coast of Maine. Their visits to Wisconsin are few and far between with roughly one or two sightings each year. Males have a bright yellow underside with bold black streaking on the flanks and gray wings with a chestnut brown patch on the upper part of the back. They have a black semicircle under the eye. Females look similar but with more muted colors and a more grayish head. Prairie Warblers are not uncommon in lower Midwestern states but in Wisconsin the best place to find them is in the southeastern counties along Lake Michigan. There was one reliable Prairie Warbler present for five years straight during May Wisconsin’s South Kettle Moraine State Forest, but that bird has since moved on.

Kirtland’s Warbler

Annual and Breeding

Kirtland’s Warblers have a dark gray back with black streaks. Their throat and underside is bright yellow and they have distinct white markings directly above and below the eye. Males have a dark marking between their eye and bill while females are more drab with darker speckling on their underside. While not the most extravagant species, they are one of the rarest warbler species in North America due to their incredibly stringent habitat requirements for nesting. They require Jack Pines around 5-6 feet tall and leave the area once the pines exceed 10-15 feet. These birds winter in the Caribbean and migrate primarily to Michigan in the spring with a population also breeding in Wisconsin. Since this species is sensitive, there is little information on ebird about where to find them in Wisconsin but they do show up from time to time along their migratory path as well as in their top secret breeding grounds.

Worm-Eating Warbler

Annual and Breeding

Worm-eating Warbler
Worm-eating Warbler

The range of the Worm-eating Warbler is similar to that of the Prairie Warbler from Central America up the east coast and breeding east of Texas. This species is easily distinguished from other warbler species by its large pinkish bill and black head stripes on an otherwise buffy bird. Worm-eating Warblers live in areas with steep slopes and dense understory. They can be found in various places resembling this habitat in Wisconsin including Milwaukee, Madison, along the Mississippi River, and Devil’s Lake State Park. When trying to find this species listen for their high pitched buzzing call which sounds similar to that of a Chipping Sparrow.

Honorable Mentions

Other than the five species mentioned above, there are a few other warbler species that can be hard to find but are all expected to be reported several times a year or that breed in known locations in Wisconsin. Here is a brief listing of these species:

Connecticut Warbler

Yellow-throated Warbler

Kentucky Warbler

Cerulean Warbler

These species are always nice to find. Especially if they are found away from their expected locations.

Final Thoughts

May is truly an exciting month for birders as millions of birds are on the move. With a bevy of different habitats in Wisconsin and rare species showing being reported across the state, who knows what bird might show up next. Hopefully, some of those reading this will have success finding one of these rare species in Wisconsin to make the month of May that more special.

 

Birding Rainy Milwaukee

On a cold Thursday in May, a report came through of Willets and American Avocets at Lakeshore State Park in Milwaukee. In spite of the fact that the temperature was in the 40s and a steady rain poured over the entirety of southern Wisconsin, we decided to brave the weather and go see these annual, but still difficult to find birds.

When we arrived we could see numerous Herring Gulls dotting the grass and sand but couldn’t make out anything that looked like shorebirds. As we got closer, we noticed two dark shapes a few feet out from the beach. We were excited to see that these were American Avocets. We then noticed a group of five Willets that were tucked behind a large boulder and just now coming out. We stayed to enjoy these interesting birds for as long as we could until we were soaked to the point where we feared that our cameras would get too waterlogged.

We moved up the coast of Milwaukee to McKinley Beach. Here we found many Caspian Terns and two significantly smaller Common Terns. Also out over the water were hundreds of migrating Double-crested Cormorants.

Willet
Willet

Further north, we surveyed the area near Linwood treatment plant where we had a nice variety of sparrows including Swamp, Savannah, Song, and White-crowned. We also located Hermit Thrushes, Ruby-crowned Kinglets, Bonaparte’s Gulls, Yellow-rumped Warblers, and our first of year Black and White Warbler. Perhaps the biggest surprise was a lone male Bobolink calling from a large tree. I have had them in this location before so perhaps its a more common area for them than I realize.

Our final stop of the afternoon was Lake Park. Here we found White-crowned Sparrows, Northern Flickers, more Hermit Thrushes, and a Brown Thrasher. In the trees was a large group of warblers but the persistent rain and dark sky made them appear to be nothing more but black shadows against gray. A few of them dropped low enough for us to start distinguishing some features. The only non yellow-rumped in the group was an Orange-crowned Warbler. At this location, the most interesting bird was a Wilson’s Snipe that was feeding in some of the puddles in the grass.

Overall, for such a nasty weather day, we had a pretty good time birding. Even so, we were happy to go back home and change into some dry clothes.

Top 5 Wisconsin Birds of 2018

With 2019 on the horizon, a new year of birding, listing, and exploring is about to begin. However, before leaving 2018 in the year view mirror, lets take a moment to look back at some of the coolest birds that showed up during this past year. Here are the top 5 birds of 2018 in Wisconsin.

5. Tufted Duck

Month: January
Difficulty to view: High

Starting the year off with a bang was a Tufted Duck that made an appearance in early January. Tufted Ducks have a large native range being found from Russia and Siberia all the way to Iceland and Northern Canada. Thee birds do show up on the east and west coast of the United States but rarely make their way inland. With this bird typically found in Eurasia it’s no wonder that it caused a stir in the Wisconsin birding community. The problem however, was that the bird was spending most of its time on the Minnesota side of the Mississippi River and placed itself in an inconvenient location for viewing. While it occasionally floated into Wisconsin waters and flew over the state, the time it did was sporadic at best. In fact, only 6 reports of this duck in Wisconsin made it to ebird.

4. Swallow-tailed Kite

Swallow-tailed Kite
Swallow-tailed Kite

Month: August
Difficulty to view: Low

As summer ended, one of the coolest birds to visit Wisconsin in recent years made a visit: the Swallow-tailed Kite. This particular bird was spotted west of White River Marsh in Marquette County and was nice enough to stick around long enough for almost everyone interested in seeing it to get a view. Typically found as far north as the Southeastern United States and with a range that spans well into South America, surprisingly, it isn’t unheard of for Swallow-tailed Kites to stray north. One made an appearance in Door County, Wisconsin in 2016 and some reports of this species are as far north as Canada.

3. Clark’s Nutcracker

Month: February
Difficulty to view: High

In one of the more bizarre situations in the Wisconsin birding community, a Clark’s Nutcracker was found at a private residence in the northern city of Minocqua. Native to the Western mountains of the United States and typically not straying into the Midwest, many were eager for a chance to view this bird. The problem though, was that the homeowners did not want hoards of birders and photographers descending on their house. As a result, area birders served as gatekeepers and only let a select few view the bird. The situation was irritating for many, but the bird was an interesting find nonetheless. Hopefully a more viewable member of the species is found in Wisconsin some day.

2. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper

Month: August
Difficulty to view: Moderate

The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper is another extremely rare Eurasian visitor that is almost never found in the Midwest. It was found in Wisconsin’s Mecca for rare migrating shorebirds: Horicon Marsh. The Sandpiper was viewed by several people but locating it was a major task as it spotted on the mud flats of highway 49 where thousands of other shorebirds were also spending their time. Between heat shimmers, thousands of moving birds, and the target bird making inconsistent appearances, to many, this was the equivalent of finding a hay colored needle in a football field of hay stacks. Those that were able to find it were rewarded with adding a very rare species to their state lists.

1. Hammond’s Flycatcher

Hammond's Flycatcher
Hammond’s Flycatcher

Month: December
Difficulty to view: Low

Coming in at number one in the countdown is the Hammond’s Flycatcher. Maybe it’s because it’s the most recent rare species to visit Wisconsin, or because of it’s ease to find that it ranks number one. Either way, the Hammond’s Flycatcher showed up just in time to give Wisconsin birders an early Christmas present. Found in the rolling hills of Iowa County, this bird would come and go multiple times a day seemingly at random. Much like the Swallow-tailed Kite, almost everyone who wanted to see this bird was able to cash in on the opportunity. This was Wisconsin’s first state record of the species.

 

Incredibly Rare Hammond’s Flycatcher

For a few days, a rare western visitor had been seen in Iowa County Wisconsin: the Hammond’s Flycatcher. The Hammond’s Flycatcher is a species of least concern in its natural range spanning from the Pacific coast of the United States to the Western portion of Nebraska. However, this species is almost never seen in the central Midwest, let alone Wisconsin. The Flycatcher had been appearing for brief windows of time and then vanishing into the thickets behind a house on a rural road. Other birders reported that once it disappeared, it would be gone for a number of hours before returning; making our timing incredibly important.

Derek and I had planned on leaving around 7:30 am and arriving at about 9:30 to give ourselves enough time to search. Yet again, our original plan was foiled by the fact that we accidentally slept in until about 9. We eventually got on the road and headed toward the small town of Avoca in hopes of relocating this elusive bird.

Iowa County
Sun shines through the fog in Iowa County, WI

As we drove through the countryside passing Madison area in the process the skies changed from clear blue to cloudy with billows of fog hanging above us. We had been optimistic about finding Golden Eagles soaring over the ridges on the way to our target bird but the lack of visibility made it almost impossible to look high enough into the sky.

When we finally arrived, several other cars were parked on both shoulders of the road in front of the house, and birders were out of their cars milling about. When we parked and got out of the car, another birder walked past us and said that the Flycatcher was in the crab apple tree in the front of the yard. We excitedly picked up the pace and got eyes on the small bird fluttering low in the bushes. As we watched, other birders told us that some of them had waited more than 2 hours for the Hammond’s Flycatcher to arrive.

Hammond's Flycatcher
Hammond’s Flycatcher

The Flycatcher appeared to be very lively even with it being so far out of its normal range. With a bird straying far from its migratory path there is always concern about the birds health and well-being. Especially for a bird that usually feeds on insects finding itself braving a Wisconsin winter. Nonetheless, the Hammond’s was actively feeding on something as it appeared to be hawking insects too small for us to see. It jumped and fluttered from a crabapple tree in the front yard, to a small bush, to the ground, and eventually out of sight behind a shed. We waited for ten more minutes after the bird departed but it never came back into sight.

Feeling excited to add the Hammond’s Flycatcher to our life lists, we decided to try and catch a glimpse of a Golden Eagle on the way home. Much of the fog had evaporated away and the raptors had begun taking light. We noticed a Bald Eagle flying overhead as well as another one feeding on a deer carcass. A Rough-legged Hawk was perched on a telephone pole in the distance, and we passed two American Kestrels off the highway.

Suddenly, Derek noticed a large bird soaring low to the northeast of the road. We were able to get quick pictures of it as it continued east. The bird turned out to be an adult Golden Eagle. We followed it east until it climbed over a ridge and disappeared out of sight.

In all, we were gone just over five hours and found two rare birds. The Golden Eagle is an annual but occasionally tough to find visitor. The Hammond’s Flycatcher (if accepted by the records committee) will be a state first. It was a fun day to be out in Wisconsin searching for birds.