Cackling Goose vs. Canada Goose

Almost everyone is familiar with the loud and abundant Canada Goose. Even non birders can pick out the familiar brown bodied, black and white faced bird best known for it’s v-shaped migratory pattern and its reputation for being easily irritated by passers by. However, there is another bird closely resembling the Canada Goose that makes its way across North America during migration: The Cackling Goose.

The Cackling Goose looks extremely similar to the Canada Goose. So similar in fact, that it was originally listed as a Canada Goose subspecies. Eventually, it was determined that the Cackling Goose was different enough to warrant its own species distinction. There are now 7 subspecies of Canada Geese and 4 subspecies of Cackling Goose with each subspecies having subtle differences. While at first glance, the two species are tough to tell apart, there are a some diagnostic characteristics that make differentiating the Canada Goose and Cackling Goose much easier.

Size

Cackling Geese
Looking at the image, the petit stature of the 3 Cackling Geese in front of the many Canada Geese is obvious

One of the most noticeable differences between the Canada Goose and Cackling Goose is overall size. The Canada Goose is by far larger with an average length of 76-110 cm and wing span of 127-170 cm compared the Cackling Goose’s much daintier 63-65 cm length and 108-111 cm wingspan. When standing side by side the difference is obvious with the Cackling Goose being closer in size to a Mallard than to a Canada Goose. However, the issue is that a direct comparison is not always possible. In addition, larger subspecies of Cackling Goose can be close to the size of a smaller subspecies of Canada Goose. For this reason, size alone is not always reliable.

Bill

The next distinguishing feature to note is the bill. The Canada Goose’s bill is long and gently sloping to give it a more pointed appearance. The Cackling Goose’s bill is stubbier and slopes down more rapidly; giving it a more triangular appearance. The Cackling Goose’s shorter bill is one of the key features that can be diagnostic in the field even when there are no Canada Geese nearby to compare with.

Neck

Canada Geese
This image shows how deceptive size and neck length can be. Both of these birds are Canada Geese but the bird in front looks a bit smaller and is not elongating its neck. However, the bills on both birds are nearly identical.

Much like bill length, neck length is also a key feature that differs in the two species. The Canada Goose has a comparatively longer neck than the short neck of the Cackling Goose. Even when fully extended, the Cackling Goose will still appear to have a shorter neck. This feature can be slightly deceptive as Canada Geese can appear to have short necks when they are resting and length can be largely dependent of position of the bird..

Other Features

There are a few other less noticeable features that differentiate the species as well. One thing to look for is primary projection. The wing tips of the Canada Goose typically do not stretch as far beyond the rump as those of the cackling Goose. This gives the Cackling Goose a slightly more elegant appearance.

The size and shape of the head can also be used as a diagnostic tool. The Canada Goose’s head is larger and has a more gentle sloped angle from the back of the head to the front. The Cackling Goose has a smaller and more rounded head.

Review

Cackling Geese
Here is a good comparison to note all ID features of the Cackling Goose. The two birds in the middle of the image are smaller in size with stubby necks, stubby bills, rounded heads, and slightly longer primary feathers than the Canada Geese around them.

Canada Goose

Larger Size
Long pointed bill
Long neck
Shorter primary projection
Flatter sloping head

Cackling Goose

Smaller size
Short, stubby, triangular bill
Short neck
Longer primary projection
Small rounded head

Canada Goose vs. Cackling Goose can certainly be a challenging ID. Since most of the differentiating features are comparative, it can especially difficult to make an identification when there are no other birds around for perspective. With both species varying wildly in size due to many subspecies, no one characteristic should be used to disseminate the two. Instead, all characteristics together can help paint a clearer picture of which birds are Canada Geese and which are Cackling Geese.

Top 6 Halloween Birds That Live In Wisconsin

The days are shorter, the nights are colder, and everything is just a little spookier. Halloween is fast approaching, and with it come many natural representations of the holiday. Whether its bats, black cats, or pumpkins that get you in the mood for Halloween, there’s no question that this holiday is strongly tied to the flora and fauna of the fall.

Along with the traditional Halloween animals, Wisconsin plays host to several birds that could also serve as creepy additions to your Halloween. Whether it’s due to their coloring, habits, or association to darkness, these six birds embody the spirit of October’s holiday.

6. American Crow

The American Crow is one of the most intelligent and least appreciated birds in Wisconsin. They can be found in a variety of habitats and can often be seen soaring over highways and perching in dead trees. They eat a wide variety of foods and frequent garbage cans and other locations they can find discarded scraps. The American Crow is closely associated with darkness due to their preferred habitat being open fields and other places where little grows, inquisitive personalities, and dark coloration. Their caw evokes images of walking into dark woods as night falls. Their black color, desolate imagery, and cunning intelligence lands the American Crow at number 6 in the countdown.

5. Turkey Vulture

Turkey Vulture
Turkey Vulture

Soaring in at number five in the count down is the Turkey Vulture. Turkey Vultures feed mostly on carrion, using their extremely powerful sense of smell to locate dead animals. There is possibly no harbinger of death better known than the vulture. They are often represented in media as a sign that a person or animal is about to die as the vultures circle above in anticipation of a meal. The Turkey Vultures reddish-pink head is featherless so rotting meat doesn’t get stuck in their feathers when eating rotted flesh. This bald, skeletal looking head makes this bird look even creepier as it flies low over the landscape literally trying to smell dead meat. The Turkey Vulture’s association with death and zombie-like appearance puts it at number 5.

4. Eastern Screech Owl

The Eastern Screech Owl is one of the smallest owl species in Wisconsin. They come in two colors or “morphs,” a camouflaged gray and a brighter orange. Eastern Screech Owls roost in cavities during the day and hunt for small animals at night. They can be seen sunning themselves at entrance of nest boxes and tree cavities on sunny days. During the night, Screech Owls have a very distinctive call that is known as a whinny and trill. This horse-like screaming can be creepy if someone was unfamiliar with the sound. The Eastern Screech Owl’s orange pumpkin morph and their haunting call puts them at number 4.

3. Northern Shrike

While at first glance the Northern Shrike looks like the typical song bird, this medium sized creature, it is a nightmare to any animal smaller than itself. Northern Shrikes are North America’s only predatory song bird. The Shrike uses its hooked bill and sharp claws to feast on mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and other birds. The fact that this bird is predatory is not why it makes the list but rather the way it stores its prey. The Shrike has a gruesome habit of skewering its prey (often when it’s still alive) on wires and thorns to save for later. The Shrike’s macabre food storage and deceptively cute appearance make it a unique addition to the list.

2. Great-horned Owl

Great-horned Owl
Great-horned Owl

Picture this, walking alone in the silent winter woods. From behind you a soft, deep hoot comes from the tree tops. Without a sound a large shadow sweeps by and suddenly vanishes. Due to its large size and frequent vocalizations during mating season, the Great-horned Owl is one of the most frequently encountered owls in Wisconsin. Their spooky call, large wingspan, and piercing eyes have led some to hypothesize that numerous crypto zoological sightings of winged creatures in North America are actually Great-horned Owls. In addition to their large, shadowy appearance, Great-horned Owls have a creepy habit. They tend to decapitate larger prey items (usually medium sized mammals such as rabbits). They also sometimes remove the limbs and crush the bones to make the deceased creature easier to carry. A study found that 60 percent of Great-horned Owl kills end up decapitated.

1. Common Raven

Quoth the Raven nevermore, stated famed poet Edger Allen Poe. The Raven can be found in the Northern part of Wisconsin and looks very similar to the American Crow. What sets the Raven apart is its significantly larger size, thick bill, wedge shaped tail, and gruff call. The Common Raven has long been a deep rooted symbol associated with intelligence, insincerity, and sometimes evil. Much like the raptors in Jurassic Park, Ravens have been known to hunt in pairs or small groups and have been tabbed as incredibly intelligent. They have followed humans throughout history waiting to try and find an easy meal. Due to the Raven’s intimidating stature and relation to death and darkness thanks to Edger Allen Poe, it takes the top spot in our countdown of Halloween birds in Wisconsin.

Think there are other birds that could also be on this list? Leave us a comment below.

Horicon Marsh in Early August

On Saturday, I met Derek up at Horicon Marsh. Lately, the best shorebird habitat has been at Horicon and some rare species have been located. One of the rarest has been the a Sharp-tailed Sandpiper that has been seen off and on for the past week. While the sandpiper didn’t make an appearance there was still plenty to see.

Horicon Marsh
Horicon Marsh

When I arrived on highway 49 I saw an incredibly large number of birds on the mudflats to the south. Many were too far out to identify, but some of the closer birds turned out to be decent finds. Some notables were Wilson’s Phalaropes, Black-necked Stilts, and Short-billed Dowitchers.

Black-necked Stilt
Black-necked Stilt

On the north side of highway 49 were many Great Egrets and Great-blue Herons feeding on fish left behind by the drying water. Among the Egrets and Herons was a single Snowy Egret (a rare bird for the state with only a few reports each year). A few Least Sandpipers and Killdeer were also present.

Snowy Egret and Great-blue Heron
Snowy Egret and Great-blue Heron

After another quick scan of the south side oh 49 yielded no new birds, Derek headed out while I continued to the Auto Tour. I parked in the Auto Tour lot and walked down Old Marsh Road. Within 50 feet of walking I noticed a Least Bittern perched up on the reeds. This was the closest I had ever been to a Least Bittern so even though they aren’t rare it was a nice surprise. Farther down the road I added Sora, Virginia Rail, and Black Tern to my day list. On the way out of the auto tour I located a juvenile Common Gallinule.

Overall, I found several year birds with the Snowy Egret being the rarest. While the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper couldn’t be found, it was still a great day to be out.

Yellow-breasted Chat at Brooklyn Wildlife Area

Last Sunday (June 3, 2018), I decided to sample a few areas in the southern part of the state in both Dane and Sauk Counties. The trek began early in the morning at Brooklyn State Wildlife area located just south of Madison in Dane County. Several Field Sparrows perched up on my way down the trail. I was also serenaded by the songs of Brown Thrashers, Blue-gray Gnatcatchers, and Eastern Wood-Pewees. It wasn’t until I walked about half a mile in that I heard the distinct mewing and catcalling of a YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. I was able to locate the bird singing near the top of a nearby tree hunkered in it’s leaves.

This bird, about the size of a grosbeak, is often heard and not seen due to their elusive nature. Chats are found in areas with dense brush, such as thickets and forest openings and primarily seen in the southern part of the state. The Yellow-breasted Chat was once considered to be in the Wood Warbler family, but in 2017, this species became the only member of the Icteriidae family.

DSCN1588
Sauk Prairie Recreation Area, in the background is Pine Glen Gorge of Devils Lake State Park

After being satisfied by a decent show from the Chat, I moved north to Sauk Prairie State Recreation Area. This area was formerly the Badger Army and Ammunition Plant, at one time the largest manufacturer of munitions in the world. The drive down the main road yielded some decent open country birds such as Eastern Meadowlarks and Clay-colored Sparrows. Most notable was a singing BELL’S VIREO not far from the entrance. After driving a few miles into the property I made it to the dense brush I was looking for. A singing WHITE-EYED VIREO sang its harsh, rapid song. Unfortunately, the bird never made an appearance before the wind picked up and activity died down.

Birding in Early June – Retzer Nature Center and Horicon Marsh

Today, Ryan and I got a late start to birding. We decided to star locally and we headed to one of our favorite spots: Retzer Nature Center. Our goal was to check if the Dickcissel had returned to the prairie. We arrived around 1 o’clock and started on our usual loop. At the pond was a single Green Heron perched on a log along with a couple of kids catching frogs. They didn’t seem to notice the Heron and the Heron did not seem disturbed by them. Further along the path were numerous Song Sparrows and American Goldfinches. We continued through the forest and found several black-capped Chickadees and American Robins. As we exited the forest and started on the edge habitat, several Indigo Buntings were calling and Tree Swallows flew overhead. The grass on the Oak was fairly tall but we did not hear any Henslow’s Sparrows or Dickcissel. After listening for about 10 minutes we continued up the hill and were amazed at the number of Bobolinks on the prairie making their metallic buzzing call. After stopping to appreciate them we continued our loop and ended up back at our car. It was fairly windy and there were gray clouds overhead most of the time, and we decided to head back home and check the birding reports.

Bobolink
Bobolink

When we got back home Ryan saw that Black-bellied Plovers, a Hudsonian Godwit, and Wilson’s Phalaropes were seen at Horicon Marsh. After some debate, we decided to take the hour and ten-minute drive up to the marsh in an attempt to see the birds. On the way, there was debate on which CDs to listen to and one missed exit but we eventually arrive around 4 o’clock. few stopped on Highway 49 and noticed there was a lot of shorebird activity. We pulled over and picked out Dunlin, Pectoral Sandpiper and Black-necked Stilt. We pulled up a little further and still didn’t see any sign of the Godwit but did pick out several Black-bellied Plovers. We pulled up even further (the good area was large) and eventually picked out the single Hudsonian Godwit searching for food! A new year bird for Ryan and I. There were many black terns flying around, and we were also able to find one White-rumped Sandpiper in the mix. Also present were Canada Geese, Northern Shovelers, Gadwall, Blue-winged Teal, and calling Sandhill Cranes.

We moved on to the other side of Highway 49 and noticed many Great Egrets. There were several photographers pulled over but it seemed like they weren’t looking at the Egrets. To our surprise there were 2 Ibis out in the field! We checked the faces to see what kind they were (Glossy or White-faced) and both seemed to be White-faced, one adult and one immature.

Horicon Marsh
Derek surveying the marsh

After observing the Ibis for a long time we headed to the auto tour and decided to walk Old Marsh Road to look for Least Bittern. With dark clouds looming overhead we cautiously walked out and noticed that there seemed to be many dried-up turtle eggs next to open holes in the ground. We weren’t sure if these were nests that had been predated or eggs that had simply hatched. Down the road, there were several flocks of White Pelicans, Warbling Vireos, Yellow Headed and Red-winged Blackbirds, and Marsh Wrens. We traveled further than we originally planned, hoping to find some decent shorebird habitat but the water was too high. The only shorebird-like find was one Killdeer. On the way back we stopped to admire the call of a lunking American Bittern and one fly by Black-crowned Night Heron. We finished our loop on the auto tour noticing several American Coots, but not finding too much else. We made one more stop on Highway 49 and noticed one more Ibis and thought it must be a Glossy. Upon further observation it proved to be another White-faced, but we couldn’t be disappointed about seeing 3 Ibis on a trip where we didn’t expect to see any. We stopped one more time to admire the Hudsonian Godwit, Plovers, and Stilts before heading home, pleased with out day.

Notable Finds: Hudsonian Godwit, Black-bellied Plover, American Bittern, Black-necked Stilt, White-faced Ibis

Notable Misses: Wilson’s Phalarope, Whooping Crane

The Silver Lining of Failing to Find a Chat

A lot of times birders like to write about the awesome birds they found and the glorious moments when they find the rarity they were chasing after. This is not one of those moments. For the past few days, Yellow-breasted Chats have been reported at in Milwaukee County. We had gone at least four times to various spots along the lake trying to relocate one of these birds but came up empty each time. One such location is Bender Park in Milwaukee.

With a Yellow-breasted Chat once again reported at bender Park I met Derek there in hopes of finally finding it. Derek got there before I did and informed me he had located a Northern Mockingbird, which is uncommon in Wisconsin. He hadn’t had any luck finding the Chat and told me that he had lost track of the Mockingbird as well. Nonetheless I met him there anyway hoping that four eyes on the dense bushes and open fields could turn up some good finds.

When I arrived there were many birds flitting about in the trees (mostly Palm Warblers and Yellow-rumped Warblers) but there was no sign of Derek. I took it upon myself to follow an interesting call into the thicket for a while and felt foolish when it turned out to be a Brown Thrasher. After spending some time feeling disgusted with my lack of call identification skills I headed toward the open field to the lake. The Clay-colored Sparrows were buzzing. Other sparrow species including Song, and Savannah were working the edges of the cliffs along with Bank and Northern Rough-winged Swallows. I made my way back to the main path while Eastern Towhees and Gray Catbirds called all around me.

Eventually I was able to find Derek who was looking thoroughly defeated after once again having no luck with the Chat. We searched a while longer for either the Chat or the Mockingbird but had no luck. We were however able to pick up a Blackpoll Warbler and a Bobolink near the cliff edge.

Northern Mockingbird
Northern Mockingbird

We had given up our search and started back to our cars when something caught Derek’s eye. “Hey I think that’s it” he said very stoically. Suddenly he changed his mind and stated “no I think that’s something else” as if he didn’t want to get his hopes up. Suddenly with a flash of its wing we saw the characteristic white wing bars of a Northern Mockingbird. We admired the bird for a bit as it worked its way east flying from tree to tree. Eventually we headed back to our car feeling glad that our efforts had yielded something. Leave it to Derek to find a rare bird twice in one day.

Isabella, Minnesota: Search for the Boreal Chickadee

On our second day in Minnesota we ventured north in search of the elusive Boreal Chickadee. Our destination was the tiny town of Isabella where the highest congregation of e bird reports were. After a two hour drive, the clear skies of Duluth had given way to a windy blizzard.

As we drove the back roads we saw few birds other than a few Black-capped Chickadees, American Crows, and Common Ravens. We did have an exciting sighting of a pure white Snowshoe Hair which most of us had never seen before.

Gray Jay
Gray Jay

We finally arrived at the Isabella Café where several reports of Boreal Chickadees had been logged. We walked around the café and saw some Black-capped Chickadees which gave us hope that Boreal Chickadees may not be far behind. We located two very friendly Gray Jays that came right up to us and ate scraps left out by the restaurant. A singing Pine Grosbeak flew in to check us out for a few minutes as well.

After failing to find what we were looking for we continued on the snow covered back roads of northern Lake County stopping and listening any time we found nice looking habitat. After many stops without hearing a sound, Derek spotted a Boreal Chickadee. We excitedly got out of the car and tried getting photos and videos of the fast moving chickadee. We noticed not one but two of them flitting around in the trees. Almost as soon as they had arrived, they departed back into the thick conifers.

We had to work extremely hard to find our target bird but on the way back we marveled at the fact that we were actually able to find not one but two of these birds. Overall, our trip to Minnesota went better than any of us had anticipated and we went home content with our weekend of birding.